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    Turkmenistan

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    Country Brief

    Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia that shares borders with Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Iran. A large trade surplus is driven by the export of oils, petroleum products, and cotton to a small number of concentrated markets including China, Italy, and Turkey. The reliance upon natural resource exports to these select markets makes Turkmenistan especially vulnerable to commodity price and demand fluctuations. Imports of value added goods and metals meanwhile arrive mostly from China, Turkey, and Russia. Although not a member of the WTO, Turkmenistan is a CIS member and has signed RTAs and PTAs with a number of trading partners. Nevertheless, market access is still severely limited and trade continues to be hampered by low productivity, limited financial access, high transportation costs, and underdeveloped physical and quality management infrastructure.